Mayers World Economy: Less state!

Levy Economics Institute | Research Programs

Thomas Kuhn saw this much more pessimistic. Not falsified hypotheses form a scientific paradigm is not only created by its authors, but also defended. Scientific knowledge develops in leaps. Is a scientific paradigm once established, plump facts that make it partially or entirely in question, first of all from him. The representatives of the ruling doctrine form a cartel. Who wants to make career in science, must enter into the cartel by he pays homage to the cardinals of the prevailing doctrine. Disciples are included in the cartel, rejected heretics. As facts accumulate to a critical mass, which is the prevailing view in question, the heretics unite to new schools that compete with the prevailing doctrine. The Cardinals of the dominant paradigm meet the challenge by closing the ranks of the cartel fixed. With an increasing amount of contradictory facts, however, they get more and more on the defensive. The victory of the heretics is perfect if the old Cardinals eventually lose their influence.

The debate in the financial economy currently seems to follow the script of Thomas Kuhn. Although the financial crisis has created new facts that can not be explained by the paradigm of rational expectations and efficient financial markets, keeping the US-based universities and central representatives of the ruling doctrine in these theories still found. This is most clearly visible in the monetary policy where further inflation targets with the old methods are pursued, even though that has made the most significant contribution to the emergence of the financial crisis. However, representatives of the dominant paradigm are now beset by critics, emanating from the irrationality of economic actors and inefficiency of financial markets.

Behavior-based approaches gain in the economic and financial science of influence and strive to the paradigmatic dominance. It must be recognized that a system based on the assumption of individual irrationality and inefficiency of financial markets new paradigm is paving the way for a paternalistic state. "Irrational individuals" must be helped with government help to better economic decisions, and "inefficient financial markets" need to be controlled by the state. But where should the state take the knowledge to make better decisions than individuals? Discover more

Federer and Wawrinka will play the final of the tournament in Monte Carlo


Tomorrow for the first time in one hundred and seventeen years of history, and one hundred and seven editions, a Swiss win the tournament in Monte Carlo, one of the great classics of the season on red tennis. In the end, who should play for under a scorching sun, take the field Stanislas Wawrinka, number 3 in the world and winner of the Australian Open in January, and King Roger Federer, now number 4, but perhaps the greatest tennis player of all time. The two friends, who a few weeks ago led the Swiss in the semifinals of the Davis Cup, in the semi-finals without too much trouble got rid of Ferrer and Djokovic respectively.

The tournament of the Principality from 2005 to 2012 (absolute record in the history of tennis) was won by Nadal, the king of the red, and the current world number one. The Spaniard, who was defeated in the finals a year ago, yesterday's surprise was overtaken by compatriot Ferrer in the quarterfinals (7-6 6-4). The defeat of David is a big wake-up call for Rafa, who had not lost on the land of a thousand battles with his friend for almost twelve years. And today against Wawrinka, perhaps, Ferrer has felt the weight of responsibility, which generally consumes him. So IronStan, who at twenty-nine years has become a phenomenon, quickly won the first set (6-1) and then closed by winning the tie-break.

The former world number one, now in its fourth final in Monte Carlo, this tournament should not even play it, but Roger having to forfeit Madrid or Rome (the other two in 1000 on red), because the wife in one of those two weeks will give birth to her third child, she asked, and of course got a wild card by the organizers. Only once in fourteen against Wawrinka managed to beat Federer, it happened in the second round of the tournament in Monte Carlo in 2009, Roger was back from his honeymoon! to learn more

Africans in China: China's new-racism problem

Ethnic issues in China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

When you exit the subway station Xiaobei in the heart of China's third largest city they think they are in Lagos, Yaoundé or Accra. Colorfully dressed African women rummage through the goods of street vendors, the air smells of baked sweet potatoes and the exhaust gases of mopeds, jostling through the narrow streets. Reveal only the characters on the billboards and the strikingly prominent Chinese police, that is, more precisely located in Guangzhou in China: the workshop of the world.

Only one stop from the main train station is here since the late 1990s, the largest African community in Asia emerged. Depending on how you count between 20 000 and 250 000 Africans live in the district Xiaobei. Most of them came to be: With textiles and electronics, kitchen appliances and furniture. In Guangzhou, everything will be made only imaginable and exported around the world – in the wholesale warehouses on site products cost only a fraction of the price you would pay in Europe or Africa.

However, they all suffer from the widespread prejudice against blacks in China. "It's such a clear social hierarchies based on racial superiority," writes sociologist M. Dujon Johnson. The Cologne-based scientists is the first African-American who has made at a Taiwanese university his doctor.

Barry Sautman, sociology professor at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, has been researching the topic of Chinese racism. "Racism has a long tradition in China, and racial typologies are deeply rooted in traditional Chinese thinking," he says. The main reason for this he looks in the ethnic unity of thought, which had a major influence on Chinese society.

Everyday racism is correspondingly widespread: "Getting a taxi is much harder than for Chinese for Africans you think I was dangerous or would not pay." Says James Obinna, a Kenyan exchange student at the film school in Beijing. Like watching the African student Zahra Baitie. "A taxi driver in Beijing asked me why Africans eat each other," she says.

"Even in Guangzhou Chinese do not want to live with Africans – neither in space nor emotionally," says Elle Wang, a PhD student at Columbia University, who researches on the subject. "There is a lot of mistrust." Xiaobei, the neighborhood where the majority of Africans live, is commonly referred to in the population pejoratively as "Chocolate City".

In addition to Africans the narrow streets and dilapidated tenements in Xiaobei also accommodate people from outlying provinces of the country, mostly ethnic minorities, often Muslims. In no other place in China there is such ethnic diversity as on the few square kilometers in the center of Guangzhou.

In most days there in Xiaobei from late afternoon bustle. In the underpass between the main street and the Huanshi manageable place, which is at night to a huge market, almost all with the phone to the ear. Fragments of words in French, Arabic, Portuguese, English and Yoruba mingle in the echo of the tunnel walls.

But the police have set up in the square posts, barriers built – often there are raids and searches. The only sign in English is on the edge of the square. Then threatening adorn the rules by which the foreigners have to be addressed here, including very special, "Take and sell no drugs and not prostitute yourself, or you will be arrested or have to pay a fine." There are rules that make it clear what keep the Chinese from the Africans. Also read

Red Caps return

Red Caps celebrated at St. Paul's Union Depot - TwinCities.

In a forest of flags Breton, red caps and round hats, several thousand people demanded the reinstatement Saturday Nantes Loire-Atlantique Britain, hoping that the opening of the debate on territorial redistribution mark a "historic moment "for the region. A motley crowd of 5500 than 10 000/15 000 people, police and organizers traveled in a friendly atmosphere Cité des Ducs de Bretagne, one of the largest mobilizations on the theme of reunification Britain.

The protesters first chanted "Brittany reunited, we will get there!" Then "Naoned e Breizh" (Nantes in Brittany), behind a banner proclaiming head "democracy and reunification", in French and in Breton.

In the procession, which was attended by elected officials including all political and many Red Hats, delegations took place: the bagad with musicians in traditional dress – black round hat with a ribbon for men, white lace caps for women – the most radical young masked scarves in the colors of ermine, wearing sunglasses and holding a flare on metal background music. Via

Close (perhaps forever) the Abu Ghraib prison

Iraq Shuts Down the Abu Ghraib Prison, Citing Security Concerns ...

The Iraqi government has announced that it has closed the Baghdad Central Prison, better known as Abu Ghraib prison became notorious before the murders and torture perpetrated by Saddam Hussein's torturers on dissidents and political prisoners, and then, in 2004, the violence and abuses committed by some U.S. captors about terrorists being held in a maximum security prison after the fall of the regime and the Anglo-American invasion. The decision to close the infamous prison is not, however, due to its dismal reputation: indeed, the prison was closed and completely renovated to accommodate up to 14 thousand prisoners between 2006 and 2009 when it changed its name. The Iraqi Minister of Justice announced that the closure of the prison and transfer to other prisons 2. 400 prisoners constitutes a "precautionary measure" following the increased presence of terrorist groups Isis (Islamic State of Iraq and Levante) in the vicinity of the prison and it was not clear whether this is a temporary or permanent closure. One argument that says a lot about the security situation also in the vicinity of Baghdad (Abu Ghraib is located 32 kilometers west of the capital) after the Sunni Islamists militants have taken control of large areas of the province of al-Anbar in January.

The closure of the prison should be read so as a sign of weakness of the government, which fears blitz terrorists as confirmed by the Security and Defence Committee of the Parliament of Baghdad in a statement said that closing the prison would send a message of lack of security that could generate panic among the population and encourage the terrorists to believe that they have a direct influence on the decisions of the government. "The right solution would be to ensure the presence of a military force capable of regaining the territory, not allowing terrorist groups to expand their influence," said the deputy Hakim Al-Zamili, a member of the Committee but instead many have noted a growing weakness of the military and security forces, particularly evident in al-Anbar. Despite ample supplies of modern weapons by Russia and the United States the intensity of fighting and attacks, and the number of registered victims (between 500 and 900 per month from the beginning of the year, nearly 400 in the first half of April) are reporting the security situation at the levels of the most difficult period of U.S. military presence in the country.

The rest of the flight of its 500 prisoners, including many al-Qaeda, the Abu Ghraib prison, in July last year, threw discredit upon the ability of Iraqi security forces to handle the threat of terrorism and counter-insurgency operations. The assault led by dozens of militiamen the Isis not only quickly defeated the deans of the guards, killing at least 25, but the military departments and police sent in place to deal with the emergency moved so slowly as to allow the escape of fugitives, some of which were later recaptured later. On that occasion the attack was conducted simultaneously against the prisons of Abi Ghraib and Taji with the use of mortars and suicide bombers to blow up the access doors. Spectacular action that apparently the Baghdad government led by Nouri al-Maliki fears could happen again. More on this topic

The boss orders the murder in prison 'Tum … it's buried' | Video

Military fugitive who escaped federal prison in 1977 arrested in ...

PALERMO – "In the bag. . . the important thing is that you have to bury him, that's all it is the speech. " With these words the boss lifer John Di Giacomo ordered his brother Joseph, his successor as head of the district of Porta Nuova, how to delete a mobster who has not complied with the rules of the clan. The conversation, which took place in prison, was intercepted and is part of the material collected by the police today stopped alleged capicosca 8 (Operation 'Iago'), ready to unleash a new mafia war.

Giuseppe Di Giacomo, however, has never carried out the orders of his brother because he was killed on 12 March. The meetings between the two in jail – write the police – are constantly focused on the need to eliminate some of the characters considered not in line with the new management of the district. The two talk of the opportunity to kill an affiliate who would not want to put at the disposal of "picciotti" their economic resources and the need to eliminate a man of honor next to the release. "Sure," replied his brother Joseph who insists: "Quacina, quacina above (Sicilian term that indicates the lime to put on the corpse ed.) "The take off your clothes, your shoes, you understand? – He explains – When the Crasto (the cornutondr) always beat him in the head to avoid scruscio (the rumorendr). "

THE TELEGRAM – "Dear John the health of the baby all right, in a single embrace you're close." This is the text of the telegram, seemingly innocuous, with Marcello Di Giacomo, brother of the boss prisoner John informed the family that everything was ready for the revenge of the third brother, Joseph, who was killed on March 12 in Palermo. The particular emerges from Iago that today has led to the detention of 8 mafia clan's Porta Nuova. The telegram is dated 17 April and this, for the investigators, as proof the project of death was present. So much so that investigators still have the urgency of the suspects. The victims had to be Onofrio and Emanuele Lipari held responsible for the killing of Giuseppe Di Giacomo. By tapping into prison has also shown that the clan Porta Nuova had the availability of weapons: a .38-caliber revolver, a 9mm pistol, a shotgun and a machine gun. You can read more on this topic here

Easter rest in Ukraine? Tymoshenko wants Roundtable

Tymoshenko opposed to any roundtables with authorities, begs West to '

In Donetsk, the former Prime Minister proposed to resolve the conflict with pro-Russian forces in a round table, ie without use of force. Russia also calls for an intra-Ukrainian dialogue.

At the talks in Donetsk would need from all parts of Ukraine representatives come together for negotiations, a Tymoshenko's press service on Saturday. The pro-Western transitional government in Kiev interrupted their so-called anti-terrorism operation in the east of the country for the Easter holidays, to contribute to a de-escalation.

In many cities of eastern Ukraine occupy for weeks to Russia-oriented armed uniformed number of public buildings. In Donetsk activists have even proclaimed a people's republic. They call for a federalization of Ukraine with autonomy rights for the Russian-speaking areas. An agreed international crisis talks in Geneva disarmament rejected it. The tensions threaten the planned for May 25 presidential election.

Russia interpreted the Geneva agreement so that the "militia of the right sector and other fascist groups" in Kiev would have to give up their weapons. But Washington has parallels the events in Kiev, which had led to the overthrow of the elected government, and the current crisis in eastern Ukraine back. The pro-Russian forces in eastern Ukraine do not want to give up their weapons, while not free Kiev makes its detained leader and the rights sector has not disarmed.

According to a report in the "New York Times" the U.S. wants to increase its military presence in Poland. In the coming week, both countries would announce the deployment of U.S. ground forces, said Polish Defence Minister Tomasz Siemoniak the paper said in an editorial visit. Accordingly, the measure is part of an expansion of NATO presence in Central and Eastern Europe. It was not clear at first the size of the U.S. contingent. The "New York Times" reported on Saturday, the U.S. was planning small maneuvers with ground troops in Poland and Estonia.

EU Energy Commissioner Guenther Oettinger warned of a crisis of gas supply in Europe. The "Welt am Sonntag" he said, "If we do not put Kiev in a position to pay outstanding gas bills by more than two billion dollars, there is a danger that Russia Ukraine no longer supplied." Since Ukraine the most important transit country to Europe was that it could "come to a difficult to control process that relates to Germany." Discover more

Syria freed four French journalists kidnapped a year ago

4 French journalists held hostage in Syria freed - Worldnews.

Finally free the four French journalists kidnapped in Syria about a year ago while documenting the conflict that is bloodying the Arab country. Didier François, a journalist of Radio Europe 1, and the photographer Edouard Elias, were kidnapped north of Aleppo on June 6, 2013, while Nicolas Henin, a journalist of the weekly Le Point, and Pierre Torrès, an independent photographer, had been kidnapped a few days later, on June 22, 2013, in this case Raqqa. To make the announcement of their release was the same as the French President, Francois Hollande, who secured: "I'm in good health." As stated in a press note widespread dal'Eliseo, "The four journalists will return to France in the coming hours." "The Head of State thanked all those who have enabled the success of the event and participate in the joy of the families of our fellow citizens who have dealt with a great sense of responsibility for the anguish of this kidnapping," write by the French Presidency in the press.

Liberation – On the dynamics of their liberation, the French Government would not disclose anything at the moment and there is no certainty. What we learn from the Turkish press sources, however, it seems that the four journalists have been found by soldiers in Ankara in Sanliurfa province on the border with Syria. And according to the Turkish media, the French journalists had their hands tied and blindfolded, after being abandoned by strangers during the night in no man's land between the border and the Syrian turkish. They had beards and long hair, but appeared in good condition. Read more

Happy, family of four French release are “completely groggy”


The four French hostages journalists are "about to take the plane back" and moral "is particularly good," announced shortly before noon AFP father Nicolas Henin, Pierre-Yves Henin. Reunion at an airport in the Paris region, scheduled for Saturday night or Sunday morning, "it will be a lot of emotion and a lot of joy." He received calls from several parties, "including President François Hollande personally, who have informed us of the good news of the health of Nicolas and his colleagues and the principle of back in the day", a- he added. Families had "knowledge of contacts" lately "that we hoped would be successful," while cautious, has he said on BFM-TV. "The symbol of Easter was very strong, we hope that this can be achieved," but the news is nonetheless a "surprise," especially pleased.

"We do not know what to say, we are very happy of course, but it is completely groggy," further stated Josette Dunaud, grandmother of Edward Elias, whose voice was full of emotion. "It was time, we began to be very concerned," said the woman who raised her husband's ex-hostage, orphaned of both parents. Ms. Dunaud said she had been contacted Saturday around 9:00 by a councilor of the Quai d'Orsay who taught them the good news.

The father of photographer Peter Torres, Jose Torres, for his part, said his "joy" and "relief" after the release of his 29 year old son: "He told me he was fine" at a brief telephone conversation. "We know he has the moral and it is in good repair," he continued, reached by telephone. "Normally, they must go tonight after what we told Mr. Holland (..) who himself told us" the release of the hostages, said José Torres. "We did not expect it but it was hoped" this outcome "after the release of Spanish journalists," he said. Two Spanish journalists abducted in Syria in September 2013 by an armed group linked to Al Qaeda, Javier Espinosa and Ricardo Garcia Vilanova, were released in late March after six months in captivity. "We had the impression that the jihadists had decided to grant parole" added José Torres before concluding: "We asked the president to thank all the men and women who work for the release of hostages, we appreciate their courage and honesty. "

"It is a great joy, we cry," said Denis Olivennes for its part, the head of the Europe 1 radio working and Didier François Edouard Elias. "We knew that things were nearing completion, but I would like to thank very much the government that allowed them release all those who have mobilized families, the support committee. "

"We are pleased that they are out all four together, noted Patricia Philibert, general secretary of the World Hostages. This is a huge opportunity tonight and tears are mixed with champagne, "said she continued, before noting:" We do not forget the other. It is believed that the French are still in Mali. "

Royal Palace of Caserta, take the inspection of the Ministry of the keys to Cosentino

A Cosentino keys of the Reggia di Caserta: Jogging Photos

An inspection of the Ministry of Culture on the Palace of Caserta. The liability will be assessed and you will have no shame this never again repeat, wrote on Twitter today the Minister of Cultural Heritage Dario Franceschini. , Which according to the investigators, the Prefect of Caserta Ezio Monaco would have handed over the keys of the palace to go jogging in the park. The keys were found by the police during the search of Caserta taken immediately after the last arrest of former parliamentarian of the PDL. unacceptable that the prefecture has handed over the keys of the Reggia di Caserta Cosentino to allow it to run in the park one of the landmarks not only in Southern Italy but all over the country, says Pina Picierno, Democratic Party leaders in the South constituency for the European . A title that Cosentino had a right to have those keys. We thought that Cosentino does not amaze us more for his conduct, and instead the man still surprises in store for us each time proving to have exchanged our region for his own personal assets to be used at will at times, others for doing business illegally. To read more on this topic